The aorta is the main blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Advanced age, hypertension, genetic predisposition, smoking and connective tissue disorders may cause a portion of the aorta to weaken and expand like a thin- walled balloon. This enlargement over time leads to rupture and death. Prevention of rupture is achieved by screening by a simple abdominal ultrasound scan if the patient has the above mentioned risk factors. Treating the aneurysm early prior to rupture is safe and can be accomplished by minimally invasive techniques.
Normal healthy veins have uni-directional valves that help to return venous blood flow from our legs to the heart. Factors such as age, genetic predisposition, clotting in veins, standing occupations, hormonal influences predispose to formation of swollen enlarged veins under the skin known as varicose veins due to pooling of blood in the legs. This leads to a condition called Chronic Venous Insufficiency that leads to itching, pigmentation, scar formation in skin and eventually leg ulcerations that become difficult to treat.
PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASE
Peripheral arterial disease is narrowing and hardening of blood vessels caused by cholesterol deposits within the arterial wall, supplying the blood flow to the end organs like kidneys, bowel, upper and lower limbs. This leads to ischaemia of these organs leading to damage to tissues within the end-organs. PAD is most prevalent in lower limbs especially in diabetic patients leading to leg pain, gangrene, and foot ulceration or amputation. Early treatment is crucial as “ time is tissue”.
Thoracic Outlet Obstruction
A group of conditions that result from compression of the nerves or blood vessels that serve your arms. Usually affects otherwise healthy, young and active people. TREATABLE, USUALLY NO LONG-TERM EFFECTSOnce treated, ideally by combining medical treatment with physical therapy, you should be able to return to an active lifestyle.
DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS
This is a condition resulting in spontaneous or provoked blood clot formation in the deep veins of the lower or upper limbs. The danger is two-fold. The clot (DVT) may break off and travel to heart and lungs and cause Pulmonary Embolism, right heart failure and death. In the long term, DVT may cause chronic venous insufficiency in the legs.
CAROTID ARTERY STENOSIS
This is the narrowing of the arteries in the neck (carotid artery) that form the main blood supply to the brain. Narrowing and blockage of the carotid arteries can result in reversible strokes or transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs), blindness in one eye and minor or major stroke.